(A different kind of livebearer)
What Are Goodied Fish?
The Goodeidae family is an interesting group of fish. Sadly, some of the subspecies are becoming rarer and rarer in the wild and are even thought to be near extinction. The range of their natural habitat is represented by the shallow waters in central Mexico, and they are also present in parts of the Great Basin, of the US. Since this type of fish has no economic importance, efforts to promote conservation has been lacking.
If you decide to keep these fish as pets, you will have to learn a few important things about their particular needs. Unlike other fish, these are livebearers, which means that the female becomes pregnant, in a similar way to mammals. Live-bearing species of fish can be quite different than others, which is why you should pay extra attention to their living conditions and overall care.
About the Goodied fish
A large family of fish native to Mexico and the south east part of the USA, the Goodied has 40 species. They are popularly known as splitfins, due to a physical characteristic noticeable in males. They can be as large as 8 inches, but most subspecies are smaller, growing up to 2-3 inches in length.
As live-bearers, the Goodied females support their fry inside their body until giving birth, and there is a connection that allows the feeding of the young, very similar to the umbilical cord in humans. Each fry is fed throughout gestation in this manner. With each pregnancy, one female can produce around 10-15 fry, with smaller numbers in some species and higher numbers in others. There are differences in their behavior towards their young, too. While some species prey on their fry, others do not.
Splitfins do well in milder temperatures, around 70F(21C). They prefer harder, more alkaline water, and, in general, they are not fussy eaters.
Many species of Goodied are threatened with extinction. For instance, the bluetail splitfin, the rainbow characodon, the relict splitfin, the Allotoca diazi and the Manse Spring killifish are endangered, while the butterfly splitfin and the golden skiffia are already extinct in their natural environment.
The most important sub-families of Goodied are: the Allodontichthys, the Alloophorus, the Allotoca, the Ameca, the Ataeniobius, the Chapalichthys, the Characodon, the Girardinichthys, the Goodea, the Hubbsina, the Ilyodon, the Skiffia, the Xenoophorus, the Xenotaenia, the Xenotoca and the Zoogoneticus.
The Goodied do well in aquariums, and while they demand some care and special attention, they are not extremely difficult to breed and take care of.
Since you may be wondering what kind of Goodied fish you should bring home, I will talk to you mostly about the two most popular types: Ameca Splendens and Xenotoca Eiseni.
Appearance of Ameca Splendens
Better known as the butterfly splitfin, the Ameca Splendens is a beautiful looking fish. You will be able to tell a dominant male from the rest by its over-sized dorsal fin that is streaked with black. A yellow stripe that stretches towards the tail is another characteristic of males that makes them stand apart. The body has an ochre color, with silver shades on the sides, and brown tones on the back. The males tend to look fancier than females with their metallic scales that tend to glitter when there is little light. You will recognize females and the young by their black dots on the fins and the sides. An interesting fact about the male butterfly splitfin is that he can modify his color intensity depending on his mood.
Males can grow up to 3 inches, while females tend to be larger, growing up to 4 inches, when provided with good living conditions.
If you are interested in keeping this species of fish in your tank, consider getting a 30-gallon aquarium. These fish thrive in water conditions that vary between 70-78F(21-26C), and the desired pH levels should be 7.0-8.0. Water hardness can go towards the extreme high end of the scale, and more than 10.5gpg is recommended.
They love hiding among plants, so a densely populated aquarium is a good choice for the Ameca Splendens. Bare bottomed aquariums are particularly loved by this fish. If you provide moderate lighting you should get an aesthetically pleasing effect, as the beautiful coloring of both males and females will be more striking on a darker substrate. Keep in mind that this type of fish does not tolerate poor water quality, so good filtration is needed. Moderate water flow is your best bet, as far as further conditions are concerned.
What does Ameca Splendens like to eat?
It can be safely said that the butterfly splitfin is quite a greedy eater, which means that it is not fussy about what it is fed. Nonetheless, you should focus on providing a varied enough diet. Algae are most preferred, but spirulina flakes and dried seaweed make for nice treats. Speaking of treats, live food, such as daphnia and brine shrimp, should be included from time to time.
Are they aggressive?
When kept in a community of Ameca Splendens, they are not usually aggressive, but the strongest males and females may tend to bully others from time to time, although without going to extremes. However, you should keep in mind that they tend to be quite competitive when it comes to feeding, so, if you are planning on placing them together with other fish, choose more robust species that are not easily bullied by the boisterous behaviour of the butterfly splitfin.
The strongest alpha male can be noticed by his bright coloring and slightly larger size. While they may establish a pecking order inside a tank, the males do not get particularly aggressive, and serious damage seldom happens. This is a species that does not eat its fry.
You can multiply your beautiful butterfly goodied fish by using just one pair, or more, if you prefer. As live-bearers, they tend to be particular when it comes to their breeding habits. The mating ritual is initiated by females, and males increase their coloring as the courtship begins.
Females are pregnant for 55 to 60 days and they can give birth to between 5 and 30 fry that can be quite large up to 0.75 inches in length. Their large size from birth allows the fry to feed just like adult fish and they are not usually preyed on by the others.
One thing to keep in mind is that you should prepare the tank for the breeding and the pregnancy period in advance. Females are known to be easily disturbed if they get moved while in gestation. The stress of being moved usually causes the female to suffer an abortion and even die. I recommend the use of a large breeder net in the same tank, to avoid upsetting the females.
Going by the name of the redtail splitfin, Xenotoca Eiseni is another beautiful subspecies of the Goodeidae family. You can tell the males apart from the females and the young by the large hump behind their heads. This hump grows with the fish, so older males are easy to notice because of these large humps. Another thing that makes the males recognizable is the blue coloring of the body, and the red or orange coloring of the tail and penduncular area. As is the case with other live-bearing species, the females tend to exhibit less noticeable colors and a larger size.
Males can grow as long as 2.4 inches, while the females can grow up to 2.8 inches, being slightly larger.
The redtail splitfin is not particularly needy or demanding when it comes to aquarium conditions. It can tolerate colder temperatures, and it does well within the 59-80F(15-27C) range without a problem. Smaller than other species, they do not require a lot of room to swim around, so they will have no issue living in a 10 gallon tank. However, if you are planning on starting a colony, consider getting a larger tank, up to 29 gallons.
The water pH levels this fish can tolerate vary between 6.0 and 8.0. Hard water, more alkaline, is what they prefer, and keep in mind to avoid keeping them in water over 85F. Consider a tank with a dark substrate, to allow the goodeid fish to exhibit their beautiful colors to the full.
What does it like to eat?
It is good to know that this fish is not a picky eater. It is omnivorous and it does well on any kind of diet. Don’t forget that plants must be part of a daily diet, nonetheless.
Are they aggressive?
Although they are so small, compared to other species, they tend to be a bit difficult when placed in a tank with other breeds. In particular, you should know that the redtail splitfin does not get along with catfish, for which manifests a strong aversion. Stripping the fins and attacking other species like Corydoras are not unlikely events, so I recommend considering a species aquarium just for them. They are also known to prey on their fry.
If you are planning on starting a colony, you should keep in mind that this species preys on its young. You can prevent such behavior, by heavily stocking your tank with more plants, so that fry can hide. Also, offer them enough food, so that the most aggressive individuals have less reason to eat the young.
The gestation period for females is 60 days and they can produce 5 to 15 fry in one pregnancy. From the start, the fry can consume the same type of food as their parents. In a well planted aquarium, the redtail splitfin produces more fry than what it can prey on, so over time expect to see their numbers multiply.
You could also remove all the other fish from the females aquarium leaving the lone female to give birth without the risk of the fry being eaten by the other fish. After the female has finished giving birth, you should remove her as well. Then the fry can be raised without any risk of being eaten.